Gynecomastia is a problem unique to men. In most cases the cause is due to high levels of circulating estrogen. It is more common to have this problem near puberty, and then again around 70 years of age. If it happens outside of these time periods then a reason for the excess hormone production is sought for.

Sometimes testosterone use can cause Gynecomastia as well. The body has the ability to convert high doses of excess testosterone into estrogen. This may have the opposite of the intended effect on the breast by making the breast tissue instead of the pectoralis muscle larger.

The mainstay of Gynecomastia treatment is with liposuction. The density of breast tissue is variable. Some people require added energy along with liposuction to effectively remove the breast tissue and tighten the skin. Ultrasonic and laser assisted liposuction may be necessary for them. Radio frequency can also be helpful to tighten the skin in conjunction with liposuction. However, regular liposuction is often enough to obtain a good result.

Severe cases of Gynecomastia may require surgery. This can range from simply removing the breast bud to major surgery. In extreme cases free nipple grafting may be necessary.